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• Extract from the Creative Tourism Trend Report (2015), edited by Greg Richards
The rapid growth of the creative tourism field means that the number of publications and reports dedicated to this subject has also increased significantly in recent years. This bibliography includes a selection of some of the core texts in the field from previous years, and a review of the most recent publications on creative tourism.
• Core bibliography (in date order)
Richards, G. and Raymond, C. (2000) Creative Tourism. ATLAS News, 23, 16– 20.
Recent decades have seen a significant growth in cultural tourism, as tourists have become increasingly interested in learning about the culture, heritage and history of the destinations they visit. The emergence of cultural tourism as a major market has in turn stimulated the development of cultural and heritage attractions as a means of attracting tourists and using their expenditure to support cultural provision for local residents.
Although the cultural tourism boom has undoubtedly produced many successful policies and attractions, the very growth of cultural tourism has begun to cause problems. From an environmental point of view, the vast numbers of visitors attracted to major honeypots has begun to be a cause of concern, particularly in historic city centres. The increased commercialisation of cultural objects has also increased concerns about the commodification of local cultures. Many cities pursue cultural development strategies which depend on the serial reproduction of culture through iconic buildings or mega events, and this leads to less, rather than more distinction.
We are therefore seeing a ‘creative turn’ in tourism, based on the use of creative as well as cultural resources. A creative approach to tourism has many potential advantages, because of its potential for value creation, innovation potential, sustainability and mobility.
Richards, G. (2001) Cultural attractions and European tourism. Wallingford: CABI.
Includes a chapter on the Experience Industry and the Creation of Attractions, which charts the shift from cultural tourism to creative tourism.
Raymond, C. (2003) Cultural Renewal + Tourism: Case Study – Creative Tourism New Zealand. http://www.creativenz.govt.nz/assets/paperclip/publication_documents/documents/97/original/case-study-creative-tourism-new-zealand.pdf?1322079829
An inside story of the development of Creative Tourism New Zealand, the first structured creative tourism programme in the world.
Richards, G. (2005) Textile tourists in the European periphery: New markets for disadvantaged areas? Tourism Review International , 8, 4, 323 – 338.
Cultural products are often used as a means of attracting tourists to areas that currently have low levels of tourism, particularly because of their peripheral location. This article reports on attempts to develop textile-related cultural tourism in disadvantaged areas of Europe. Surveys of 1100 tourists in three regions: the Alto Minho (Portugal), Lapland (Finland), and Crete (Greece) shed light on the motivations of tourists to purchase textiles and other crafts products. Textiles do not provide the prime motivation for tourists to visit a destination, but they can form an important secondary motive. The differences in the textile crafts markets for the three regions are examined, and particular attention is paid to the need to develop products that emphasize the unique nature of local culture, but that also reflect the needs of the tourists in different regions. Examples of specific development and marketing initiatives adopted by the different regions are examined, and the long-term impact of the textile tourism initiatives is considered.
Richards, G. and Wilson, J. (2006) Developing creativity in tourist experiences: A solution to the serial reproduction of culture? Tourism Management 27, 1209–1223.
As culture is increasingly utilised as a means of social and economic development, the cultural tourism market is being flooded with new attractions, cultural routes and heritage centres. However, many consumers, tired of encountering the serial reproduction of culture in different destinations are searching for alternatives. The rise of skilled consumption, the importance of identity formation and the acquisition of cultural capital in (post)modern society point towards the use of creativity as an alternative to conventional cultural tourism. This paper considers the development of creative spaces, creative spectacles and creative tourism from the perspective of supply and demand. The need for creativity in developing new products and how to address the challenge of serial reproduction are discussed, and examples of creative tourism projects are examined and contrasted to traditional models of cultural tourism.
Richards, G. and Wilson, J. (2007) Tourism, Creativity and Development. London: Routledge.
Evans, G. (2007) Creative spaces, tourism and the city. In G. Richards and J. Wilson (eds) Tourism, Creativity and Development. London: Routledge.
An analysis of the relationship between cultural tourists and the creative class, and the shift from ‘cities of culture’ to ‘creative cities’. In particular this chapter focuses on the role of architecture and design in public space.
Prentice, R. and Andersen, V. (2007) Creative tourism supply: Creating culturally empathetic destinations. In G. Richards and J. Wilson. (eds)Tourism, Creativity and Development. London: Routledge.
Provides an analysis of creative tourism supply in small towns in France, and examines how creative tourism has been facilitated. Particular attention is paid to the role of animateursin processes of creative tourism development.
Maitland, R. (2007) Tourists, the creative class and distinctive areas in major cities. In G. Richards and J. Wilson. (eds)Tourism, Creativity and Development. London: Routledge.
Looks at the relationship between tourism and everyday life and the way in which neighbourhoods which are ‘off the beaten track’ have been developed to attract creative tourists.
Rogerson, C. (2007) Creative industries and tourism in the developing world: The example of South Africa. In G. Richards and J. Wilson (eds) Tourism, Creativity and Development. London: Routledge.
Examines the relationship between the creative industries and tourism in a developing world context looking at recent developments in South Africa. It particularly emphasises the policy context that has been developed for the creative industries and tourism in South African cities.
Maitland, R. (2007) Conviviality and everyday life: the appeal of new areas of London for visitors. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10, 1, 15 20.
Literature on tourism development in converted cities or new districts of polycentric cities emphasises planned processes to create attractions, often resulting in standardised tourism zones. The demands and experience of tourists themselves have been neglected. Qualitative research with overseas visitors to new tourism areas suggests that character and sense of place that visitors enjoy derives from a combination of unlike elements, ‘lashed up’ to create a distinctive place, in which everyday life plays an important role. Rather than familiar stories of conflict between ‘hosts’ and ‘guests’, the emphasis in some areas is on conviviality among different groups of city users.
Richards, G. (2007) Introduction: Global Trends in Cultural Tourism. In Richards, G. (eds) Cultural Tourism. Global and Local Perspectives. New York: The Haworth Press.
Reviews the global cultural tourism market, and identifies emerging styles of cultural tourism, including creative tourism.
Couret C., (2008) ‘Barcelone, pionnière de l’accueil des touristes créatifs ‘, In: Revue Espace Tourisme.
Le programme Barcelone Tourisme créatif vise à permettre, à toute personne désireuse de pratiquer une activité artistique à Barcelone, de le faire dans les meilleures conditions. Cette offre touristique participative originale, qui embrasse de nombreuses disciplines (du design au théâtre, en passant par la gastronomie et la musique), permet de répondre à la demande de visiteurs à la recherche de nouvelles possibilités d’expression. Mais aussi de renforcer l’image culturelle dynamique de la ville.
Ferrari, S., Adamo, G. E. and Veltri, A. R. (2008) Experiential and multisensory holidays as a form of creative tourism. In Richards G. and Wilson J. (eds) From cultural tourism to creative tourism. Part 4. Changing experiences – The development of creative tourism. Arnhem : ATLAS.
This paper examines the growing role of sensory aspects of consumption as a driver for creative experiences in tourism. It considers taste workshops in Italy, the History Unwired project in Venice and an olfactory tour of Casoncello Gardens.
Miettinen, S. (2008) Creative tourism as tool for local empowerment. In: G. Richards and J. Wilson, J. (eds.). From cultural tourism to creative tourism, Arnhem: ATLAS
This paper presents a case study of the development of creative tourism at a womens’ collective in Namibia, focussing on the development of relationships and skill transfer between hosts and guests.
Binkhorst, E. and Dekker, T. Den (2009) Agenda for co-creation tourism experience research. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 18, 2-3, 311 – 327.
In the experience economy, suppliers are in search of new ways to distinguish themselves and to fight for the customer’s attention. Society’s system of social ruling is making way for communicative self-steering. Dialogues between equal partners replace the traditional top down approach. Customers are therefore gaining more power and control. Product and company centric innovations are now being taken over by the co-creation experience as a basis for value and as the future of innovation. Glimpses of the co-creation experience are observed in a variety of realms but tourism is not yet mentioned as one of them. This is remarkable, as for many countries tourism is the number one income generator and for many in the developed world an essential part of their quality of life. Especially during their free time people express their quest for ever more unique experiences reflecting their own personal stories. This article provides an innovative perspective on tourism in the experience economy based on the principle of co-creation with a central role for the human being. It contributes to the debate on tourism development and innovation and does not pretend to answer all questions raised. A research agenda is proposed at the end of this paper to invite both academic and business stakeholders to research and shape the future of the co-creation tourism experience in different project settings.
OECD(2009) The Impact of Culture on Tourism. Paris: OECD.
This book reviews national/regional experiences and practices of destinations where cultural resources are driving overall attractiveness. It also examines the development of tourism production and distribution processes in relation to cultural resources. From the analysis, the book identifies some key factors and policy interventions which can maximise the attractiveness of destinations as places to visit, live and invest in.
Based on a range of case studies collected by the OECD Tourism Committee as well as external material, the analysis identifies best practice and the most effective policies for enhancing the attractiveness of destinations, capitalising on their cultural resources. Case studies have been provided by Australia, Austria, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and Turkey. The case studies illustrate different aspects of the relationship between tourism, culture and location attractiveness and the policy interventions which can be taken to enhance this relationship. Some of the case studies mentioned are available at www.oecd.org/cfe/tourism.
The book also considers the wider benefits of developing the relationship between tourism and culture, such as enhanced image, social cohesion, support for the cultural sector, increased innovation and creativity.
Pappalepore, I., Maitland, R., and Smith, A. (2010) Exploring urban creativity: Visitor experiences of Spitalfields, London. In Tourism, Culture and Communication, 10, 3, 217 – 230.
This article critically examines visitor experiences of a creative urban area, to help explore the relationships between creative industries, consumption, and the development of urban tourism. After reviewing available literature on creative areas and their appeal for emerging types of contemporary tourists, the article concentrates on one creative area in London: Spitalfields. Drawing on 50 semistructured interviews conducted with visitors between November 2007 and March 2008, the article explores the role of the creative industries in developing urban tourism, via an analysis of visitors’ perceptions, experiences, and characteristics, as well as the tangible and intangible qualities of an emerging tourism area. The findings suggest that Spitalfields is an established off-the-beaten-track destination that is starting to attract more mainstream tourists with the consequent departure of some groups of visitors. “Atmosphere” appears to be crucial to the visitor experience and is created by a number of elements including independent shops, a high number of young artists, new fashions, and cultural diversity. All these elements contribute to make the area seem distinctive, but at the same time “typically London.” The findings shed light on the complexity of the tourist experience, interrogating some key concepts such as atmosphere, perceived authenticity, and new forms of cultural capital in the context of a creative urban area.
Wurzburger R., Aageson T., Pattakos A. and Pratt S. (2010) (eds) A Global conversation. How to provide unique creative experiences for travelers worldwide. Santa Fe: Sunstone Press.
This book is based on the proceedings of the 2008 Santa Fe & UNESCO International Conference on Creative Tourism held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA, in 2008. This conference brought together delegates from 16 countries around the world to engage in a global conversation about how best to leverage the tourism sector for community and economic development. In other words, how can tourism be best organised and practiced to enhance economic benefits to cities, provinces, and countries globally?
Conceived, in large part, through the efforts of members of UNESCO’s Creative Cities Network, the conference upon which this book is based was designed to bridge theory and practice, as well as provide a forum for sharing ideas and best practices. Here you will find not only a collection of essays by some of the “thought pioneers” in the emerging and still evolving field of Creative Tourism, but also a wide array of resources, including many practical examples and illustrations of Creative Tourism in practice from around the world.
Richards, G. (2011) Creativity and tourism: The state of the art. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4),1225–1253.
The rapidly developing relationship between tourism and creativity, arguably heralds a ‘creative turn’ in tourism studies. Creativity has been employed to transform traditional cultural tourism, shifting from tangible heritage towards more intangible culture and greater involvement with the everyday life of the destination. The emergence of ‘creative tourism’ reflects the growing integration between tourism and different place-making strategies, including promotion of the creative industries, creative cities and the ‘creative class’. Creative tourism is also arguably an escape route from the serial reproduction of mass cultural tourism, offering more flexible and authentic experiences which can be co-created between host and tourist. However the gathering critique also highlights the potential dangers of creative hype and commodification of everyday life.
Marques, L. and Richards, G. (2012) Edited journal issue: Exploring creative tourism. Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, 4(2).
This special issue of the Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice contains a number of papers developed from presentations at the Creative Tourism Conference held in Barcelona in 2010. More details of each paper are given in the individual entries in this bibliography.
Couret C. (2012) Barcelona Creative Tourismpp 132 – 134, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2
Review of the development of the Barcelona Creative Tourism programme.
den Dekker T. and Tabbers M. (2012) From Creative Crowds to Creative Tourism: A search for creative tourism in small and medium sized citiespp 129 – 132, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2.
Examines the relationship between the creative scene (or ‘creative crowd’) in small cities and tourism, based on a case study of Venlo (Netherlands).
Richards, G. (2013) Tourism and creativity in the city. Current Issues in Tourism. DOI:10.1080/13683500.2013.783794
Creativity has become increasingly important for the development of tourism in cities in recent years. As competition between cities grows, they increasingly seek to distinguish themselves through creative strategies. In the field of tourism, however, such strategies may arguably be counter-productive, as the race to produce distinction often results in cities adopting similar creative development models. In particular, many cities rely on the ideas of creativity ‘gurus’ such as Richard Florida and Charles Landry to provide creative solutions to a wide range of cultural, social and economic problems. However, by following such exogenous prescriptions, adopting forms of ‘fast policy’ and copying ideas from other ‘creative cities’ through ‘policy tourism’, the result is often a form of serial reproduction, unattractive to the very tourists cities seek to attract. This review paper examines the search of many cities for distinction through creativity, and analyses the development of different forms of creativity, including creative industries, creative cities strategies and creative tourism. It argues that the shift away from tangible to intangible competitive advantage is continuing, with a trend towards relational forms of tourism based on creativity and embedded knowledge. These processes are illustrated by reviews of the literature relating to cities around the world.
• Recent Creative Tourism Publications (in alphabetical order)
Aquino, E. Phillips, R. and Sung, H. (2012) Tourism, Culture, and the Creative Industries: Reviving Distressed Neighborhoods with Arts-Based Community Tourism. Source: Tourism Culture & Communication, Volume 12, Number 1, 2012 , pp. 5-18.
Ample attention is paid to the role of arts and culture in community and economic development. however, much less attention is given to its role at the neighborhood area, as well as relationships to local or community tourism. Our goal in this article is to explore how arts and the creative industries influence community-based tourism in neighborhoods needing revitalization. Using an embedded case study analysis approach, two areas were explored: one in the Roosevelt Arts District in Phoenix, Arizona and the other in the South End Arts + Business District in Burlington, Vermont. We find that arts and creative industries do indeed play a role in fostering neighborhood revitalization. Much of the activity centers on fostering capacity building and social interactions, leading to community development outcomes. In both cases, revitalization is occurring. Lessons learned are presented, illustrating the importance of arts and culture in a framework of community-based tourism and revitalisation.
Ayu Lucky and Sriyono (2014) Implementation of creative economy to improve performance based tourism. The 3rd International Conference on Business and Banking (ICBB 2014) Pattaya, Thailand-February 5-7, 2014. ISBN: 978-602963193-7
Tourism industry has become critical to the state capital, which provides a large enough foreign exchange. This is because tourism is a source of big income compared with other sectors and the key driver in the world economy. This study tries to (1) identify the Creative Economy in the tourism sector in Pasuruan district, (2) administrative in human resources to improve the performance of the official culture and tourism. By using a qualitative approach, data were collected and then patterned, not manipulative, and live with more detailed look at the problem and research objectives. The results showed that the implementation of creative tourism-based economy in Pasuruan district is still not fully implemented because of considering human resources as well as the low level of awareness of the role of tourism is very less. Therefore creative development economy as a solution for tourism and human resources and creative mind does not necessarily mean introducing a new type of new trend of development but rather knowing how to generate new models of development, which will underline the best destinations for tourists are offered both, nor for the hosts.
Bonetti, Enrico, Michele Simoni, and Raffaele Cercola. “Creative Tourism and Cultural Heritage: A New Perspective.” Handbook of Research on Management of Cultural Products: E-Relationship Marketing and Accessibility Perspectives (2014): 367.
Catalani, A. (2013) Integrating Western and non-Western cultural expressions to further cultural and creative tourism: a case study
The term cultural industries was coined more than half a century ago, but at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the broader concept of creative industries, covering a wide range of cultural, design and digital activity, captured the imagination of public policymakers at national and city levels. Paralleling these developments has been the recognition of the phenomenon of cultural tourism and, more recently, the emergence of the idea of creative tourism, that is, tourism programmes designed to engage tourists actively in cultural activity.
This paper presents a case study of a creative tourism event which took place in 2012 in the city of Manchester in the UK. The festival, which celebrated West African culture, utilised existing cultural institutions of the city and drew on the talents of local and visiting members of West African community to engage not only tourists but also indigenous and Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) residents of Manchester in a variety of cultural activities. It thus used the focus of creative tourism to seek to foster community and cultural development as well as tourism.
Chang, Lan-Lan (2013) Influencing factors on creative tourists’ revisiting intentions: the roles of motivation, experience and perceived value(2013). PhD, Clemson University.
As Richards (2008) asserted, creative tourism is a new form of tourism that has the potential to change tourism development and make a significant contribution in differentiating and changing the tourism experience. Reviewing current literature, despite increased attention being given to the conception of creative tourism, there has been little empirical work focused on the tourists’ consumption psychology of creative tourism. Thus, this study attempts to reveal tourists’ intention to revisit creative tourism attractions by applying the theory of planned behavior, to explore the role of tourists’ motivation, experience and perceived value on the influence of their intention to revisit creative tourism attractions. It aims to extend the theory of planned behavior by including the variables of motivation, experience, and perceived value to develop an innovative model for analyzing and exploring tourists’ intention to revisit creative tourism attractions. The survey of this study was conducted at three creative tourism attractions in Taiwan. Systematic sampling had been used. The results of this study revealed that the scales of motivation, experience, perceived value adopted from existing literature have been demonstrated with good reliability and validity and the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior on understanding tourists’ intention to revisit creative tourism attractions had also been demonstrated. In addition, the regression coefficients and t-test indicated that only experience is statistically significant in predicting creative tourists’ revisit intentions; neither motivation nor perceived values were statistically significant enough to explain tourists’ intentions to revisit creative tourism attractions. Finally, extended model of the theory of planned behavior, by adding the variables of motivation, experience and perceived value, performs significantly better than the original model of the theory of planned behavior. For creative attraction owners, the results of this study suggest that cooperation with other creative tourism attractions should be a way to attract tourists to visit their attractions.
Chang, Lan Lan, Backman, Kenneth and Huang, Yu Chih (2014) Creative tourism: a preliminary examination of creative tourists’ motivation, experience, perceived value and revisit intention:, International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 8 Iss: 4.
The ever-growing concept of creativity has been introduced into the tourism field. Creative tourism has been viewed as a strategy to regenerate destinations physically, culturally and socially. In order to develop tourism products and provide services that integrate the concept of creativity to satisfy tourists’ needs by developing a more active and long lasting form of experience, this study examines tourist consumption psychology in the context of creative tourism destinations. Past studies have identified motivation, perceived value and experience as three major antecedents affecting tourists’ revisit intentions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between tourists’ motivation, experience, perceived value and revisit intentions to creative tourism destinations.
The empirical study was carried out in three popular creative tourism spots, Meinong, Shuili and Yingge, located respectively in the north, centre and south of Taiwan. These creative tourism sites provide pottery, crafts, arts, workshops and other creative activities that integrate authentic local culture to engage tourists with fulfilling and meaningful experiences. The on-site survey was conducted on both weekdays and weekends during March 2012. Self-administrated questionnaires were distributed to participants who were systematically selected at the main gate of the study areas. A total of 417 questionnaires were collected.
The results indicated that on-site tourism experience was the most influential antecedent of revisit intention to creative tourism sites in terms of the magnitude of the standardized coefficient. The unique variances of motivation factors and perceived value were too small to be statistically significant to explain revisit intentions. The present study contributes to the ever-increasing tendency for creative industries in Taiwan to develop creative tourism products and services which encompass authentic local culture and art in enhancing tourist experience.
For business operators, this study suggests that if owners of creative destinations would like to attract repeat tourists, the tourists’ experiences are surely critical in developing service blueprints to meet the needs and wants of customers; they should pay more attention to understanding what tourists experience when they visit creative tourism attractions.
Cheng-Wen, Lee and Chin-Mei, Chou (2014) The Impacts Of Native Culture On Tourism In Taiwan: A Dynamic Panel Data Analyses. African Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2), 87-98.
The main purpose of this paper is to test the impact of cultural creative international marketing on inbound tourism in Taiwan. Data are collected from the databases of the Tourism Bureau, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Culture, the Republic of China statistics database, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Economic Outlook Database. To avoid the possibility of bias and inconsistency in the results due to endogeneity, we adopt a dynamic panel data framework to modify the gravity model for the estimation. The results suggest that a significant positive relationship exists between previous period tourist flow and current period tourist flow, implying the presence of a persistent effect. In addition, the bilateral GDP, bilateral CPI, bilateral trade volume, and distance have a significant impact on tourism demand. Finally, enhancing cultural creative international marketing has effectively increased the number of tourists from these countries to visit Taiwan.
Chiu, V. (2014). Stadium Tour as Sporting Creative Tourism: A Case Study of the Anfield Experience. Paper presented at the conference Sport: Probing the boundaries. August – September 2014, Mansfield College, Oxford.
Football stadiums have become intensively stage-managed and regulated as modes of consumption in contemporary society. In the field of sport tourism, sport tourists participate in spectating and venerating attractions related with football heritage somatically. Not only evoked by tangible sites of former sporting glory such as sports stadia, nostalgia can also be awakened by a group of sport tourists who share resembling cultural capital, performing together in a particular experience. The scope of stadium tour as a type of sports tourism is far from a recent phenomenon, but current research pays little attention on how sports and tourism synergise together and package sporting experiences for spectators.
The Anfield Experience exemplifies a creative product of sport tourism in a guided-tour setting concomitant with the performance from attendees, guides and stadium. Liverpool Football Club players as tour guides enact deeper roles to fit in the institutional settings and embed authenticity in the experience. The ‘scheduled’ interaction between participants and players reproduces and embodies the essence of football culture explicitly and outwardly. Instilling diversified bodies of discourse and allegiance, the itinerary-scripted stadium tour conduce from the re-appropriation of varied performance and avoid ineluctable fixity in the stereotyped ‘guided tours’ by capitalising fan performativity, and resurrecting the representation of primal appeal about football, the unpredictable excitement.
Through field research, interviews, the discourse analysis on media networks, attendees and stadium personnel, staging/representation and historical analysis on the making of Anfield Experience, the article targets on illustrating how stadium becomes a place where football fans converse with and anchor their ardent passion. Also, by delving into the experience, it is worth noting how fan capital is enmeshed in the staged authenticity and Anfield Experience becomes a source of collecting tangible and intangible forms of cultural capital to obtain a holistic picture of how creative tourism is exhibited via fan performativity and “prosumption” by host and guest that moulds Anfield Experience into a unique mode of football consumption that outstands.
Citarella, Germana and Maglio, Monica (2014) A Systems Approach to Local Territory as a Driver for Creative Tourism Development on the Amalfi Coast. Almatourism 5, No 1.
In recent years creativity has become a resource not only in relation to artistic and cultural activities but also in terms of economic growth and development of tourism enterprises and geographical regions. This has determined the diffusion of creative tourism based on principles of sustainability. However, debate on the issue – above all in Italy – is still ongoing as concerns definitions in line with scientific literature. Our research attempts to show that the foundations for the success of this kind of tourism lies in the consolidating of the local economy, based on creativity in a system’s logic. To this aim a case study on the Amalfi Coast area (Salerno) is presented, providing a framework of the characteristics and creative potential in terms of tourism in order to highlight both the dynamics and the most significant elements for the construction of a creative ambience. Our study concludes however, that such a model cannot be considered merely as a solution for all ills, but on the contrary, can be exploited only by territories that enjoy a creative humus. In other words, strategies put in place should exalt what is rooted in the geographical, social and cultural reality, i.e. as the potential base for the affirming of this new niche of cultural tourism. Otherwise, any initiatives undertaken risk becoming useless and a waste of resources.
Churchill, Carmel Gardiner, Raylene & Johnson, Shamine (2012) Junkanoo Festival & Tourism In The Bahamas: Impact & Linkages of the Grand Bahama Rush for Peace Parade & Celebration. Paper presented at 2nd International Tourism Conference Tourism, Culture and The Creative Industries: Exploring The Linkages
The Bahamas is an archipelago of 700 islands and cays in the Atlantic Ocean located east of Florida and north of Cuba. Dating back to the 16th century, the expression of culture across the islands of The Bahamas has been celebrated through various activities such as Junkanoo, Homecomings, Regattas, and Community Reunions. In fact, these expressions have defined the Bahamian culture and have led to the proliferation of cultural festivals and events celebrated annually with different islands and cays developing its own signature festival or event.
Today these festivals and events are distinctly branded in a way that is indicative of the Island’s identity. For example, Andros Island is known for its abundance of land crabs and, therefore, an annual event, “Crab Fest” is celebrated. The Island of Eleuthera is known for pineapples, hence the annual “Pineapple Festival” and Cat Island is known for its rich heritage and is identified with a “Rake-n-Scrape Festival”. These festivals are also expanded to include Family Reunions and Community Homecomings which now form part of the cultural fabric of life in The Bahamas.
These cultural festivals and events are, however, not without impacts on the socio-economic and tourism development of the country. The increase of inter-island transportation including Ferry Boat and Air Services offered by both the government and local entrepreneurs is, for example, a direct impact of the development of these cultural events and festivals.
Cruz, A. R. (2013) Tourism as a magnet for creativity: Insights for creative class attraction in a tourism-based region.
Talent is seen as the crucial factor for growth and economic capacity. This is a commonly accepted corollary of the ideas presented by Florida in ‘The Rise of Creative Class’. This article explores the possibilities of a Portuguese ‘sun and sand’ tourism destination, the Algarve, to gain economic dynamism by using tourism resources to catch the attention of the creative class. The analysis presents the creative performance of this region in the three Ts, talent, technology and tolerance. An evaluation of possibilities for tourism product differentiation is presented. The high levels of tolerance and the potential of new tourism products anchored in historic, monumental, ethnographic and natural resources enhances the potential to attract the creative class.
Cruz, A. R. (2014). Tourism, creativity and talent: breaking Algarve’s tourism lock-in. Regional Studies, Regional Science, 1(1), 138-144.
Over the past decades creative and cultural activities have had modest opportunity to develop and grow in the Algarve (Portugal) due to the tourism specialization in ‘sun and sand’. The regional dynamics based in this specific tourism product created path dependencies and limited opportunities for expansion and consolidation of the cultural and creative sector. Using the model of three Ts – talent, technology, tolerance – this short article presents the relative creative potential of the Algarve, and opportunities to diversify the tourism offer attracting talented people and breaking the regional economic lock-in.
Cueto Pedrotti, F. (2012) Concept design – An innovative approach to learning: The case of Saint James’ Way as a playground for meaningful learning experiences.pp 25 – 40, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2
Co-creation is increasingly being used as a tool for companies to position their products in the market. The aim is to enhance a dialogue with customers and enhance firm-customer value. In the experience industry co-creation is also increasingly linked with another major trend: storytelling. The aim of this narrative technique is to build a story around a business, a product or a destination. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and highlight the application of these techniques, together with experiential learning, in order to generate a new point of view on the learning process. These techniques are applied to the Saint James’ Way in Spain, a major generator of experiences for tourists and pilgrims. The outcome of this research study is to produce a concept for a research trip based on creative tourism.
Dias–Sardinha, I., Ross, D. and Correia Loureiro, S.M. (2014) Rescue archaeology heritage valuation in Europe’s largest dam – Alqueva: ex‑situ products as elements of creative tourism. Pasos, 12(3), 623-634.
This study aims to determine how the knowledge obtained from the study of prehistoric heritage found during the construction of the Alqueva dam and irrigation system (Portugal) can enhance the current tourist experience of the destination.
Fernandes, Carlos and Rachão, Susana (2013) Reinventing tourism at a traditional cultural tourism destination: a case study of Viana do Castelo (Portugal) International Journal of Business and Globalisation
Because culture’s role in tourism is key and usually the primary reason for visiting certain tourist destinations, the development of cultural tourism as a component of cultural economic development is important in that it requires a destination to sell its culture and creativity to the intended market. This paper seeks to explore the attitudes, expectations and motivations of visitors to Viana do Castelo, in Northern Portugal, to determine how the destination can reinvent a tourism product strategy based on its heritage and the emerging trends in the tourism market. A total of 205 usable questionnaires were collected using a convenience sample of visitors. Results of this study indicate that visitors are essentially independent travellers, seeking to explore the natural and cultural heritage of the region. Finally, a series of observations and recommendations are proposed that support a new form of cultural tourism based on the valuation of local know-how and creative skills in the form of creative tourism.
Gordin V. and Matetskaya, M. (2012) Creative tourism in Saint Petersburg: the state of the art. pp 55 – 77, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2
Tourism development in St. Petersburg, which is a major cultural centre, has improved in terms of tourist flows; both tourism demand and tourist products have become more diverse. These improvements give grounds for a fairly optimistic prognosis for the tourist industry in St. Petersburg. At the same time, there are a number of factors which may endanger sustainable development of tourism in St. Petersburg. The current situation calls for a more flexible and innovative approach to industry development. Among these factors are the pronounced seasonal character of tourism, the short-term visits of most of the tourists, and the rather conservative, academic cultural image of St. Petersburg, which compromises the city’s appeal as a destination for certain tourist segments. Another critical limitation on the development of cultural tourism in general and of the creative tourism in particular, is the low involvement of the population in cultural and tourist events held in the city. This makes it relevant to look for new approaches for creative tourism development in St. Petersburg as an important tool for the sustainable development of the industry. This article considers the existing and potential competitive advantages of St. Petersburg as a tourist destination on the basis of creative tourism development.
Hung, WL Lee, YJ and Huang, PH. (2014) Creative experiences, memorability and revisit intention in creative tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 2014
The objective of this study was to identify hypothesised relationships among creative experiences, memorability, and revisit intentions in creative tourism. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was adopted and 399 valid questionnaires were collected in the pottery town of Yingge in Taiwan. The results show significantly positive relationships among creative experiences, memorability, and revisit intentions. Structural equation modelling analysis verified that memorability fully mediated the effect of creative experiences on revisit intentions. The study suggests that memorability may be a more appropriate predictor to revisit intentions, particularly in the case of creative activities.
Hull J. S. and Sassenberg U. (2012) Creating new cultural visitor experiences on islands: Challenges and opportunitiespp 91 – 110, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2
Cultural tourism is increasingly recognized as an important motivation for international travelers in search of experiencing the cultural heritage, arts, philosophy and institutions of another region or country. The UNWTO reports that 37% of all international trips include a cultural component and that cultural tourism is growing at 15% annually. Creative tourism, a subset of cultural tourism, is one of these new forms of tourism. While cultural tourism is considered a passive observation of things of the past such as artifacts, creative tourism is the transfer of the past into the present and the future via communication between locals and visitors. This interest in participatory experiences is creating many challenges and opportunities for island destinations who have had to focus on their uniqueness to create ‟attractions that attract visitors. On the island of Newfoundland, Canada, the French Shore Historical Society are developing new creative tourism products through local craft traditions in an effort to make connections on an emotional, physical and intellectual level with visitors. On Pašman Island, Croatia, the support of international tourism consultants is resulting in the development of four traditional, theme-based villages that will offer an authentic and traditional visitor experience that represents the Mediterranean way of life. This article will explore the challenges and opportunities in island destinations of planning and promoting creative tourism using participatory action research. Results will illustrate the important role of the public sector in providing assistance to creative tourism development, and the importance of island residents in taking advantage of local cultural and natural resources to generate local benefits that foster sustainability. For both the Island of Newfoundland and Pašman Island, creative tourism is providing a potential opportunity for a win-win-situation for local residents, if it is planned and developed properly.”
Ihamäki P. (2013) Geocachers’ creative experiences along coastal road in Finland, in Int. J. Leisure and Tourism Marketing, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2013.
Recent developments in information and positioning technologies, increasingly more available on portable devices, offer new opportunities not only for tracking tourist movements but also for interactive description and development of experiences. Geocaching is a worldwide treasure hunt game that requires technological devices to play. Geocaches can be found anywhere, from distant mountains and parks to the urban environment, which is why it is also well suited for travelling. This paper reflects how geocachers utilise their hobby in collecting creative experiences when travelling. The paper looks at geocaching from a perspective of creative tourism experience. The goals of this research are (1) to understand users’ creative experiences when engaging in geocaching and (2) to examine how users’ creative experience of geocaching applies to adventure tourism solutions. The conclusion presents geocachers’ creative experiences along Coastal Road in Finland and shares new ideas to develop geocaching games for adventure tourism solutions.
Jelinčić D. A. and Žuvela A. Facing the Challenge? Creative Tourism in Croatiapp 78 – 90, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2
In the last decade, creativity has become a buzz word in developmental context, from creative industries, creative classes, creative economy, creative cities, creative business, creative governance to creative tourism. Creative industries have often been used in the context of creative cities’ development creating their image internationally especially through tourism. In order to attract visitors, a new type of tourism has been developed: creative tourism. The article questions its definition as it also questions the need of cities to be re-branded through creative tourism. Two Croatian case studies are featured as to re-think the position of creative tourism in local development: the city of Dubrovnik which relies on heritage as it main resource and the city of Zagreb which still needs to define its main tourism resource but has a lot of potential in cultural/creative industries. The article argues that creativity does not always mean introducing new types of trendy developments in the destination.
Jelinčić, D. A. (2009) Splintering of Tourism Market: New Appearing Forms of Cultural Tourism as a Consequence of Changes in Everyday Lives. In Collegium Antropologicum 33, 1, 259-266.
Within the concept of cultural tourism, this article defines relatively new concepts of creative and hobby tourism, which are detected as recent niche markets. Cultural tourism is a narrow specialized market, while creative and hobby tourism relate to even more specialized segments. Even these particular forms of tourism have their market whose growth is a very probable taking into account changes in everyday work as well as changes in the values of human activity in general. These changes reflect also the sector of tourism, which is obvious in the ever growing splintering of tourism market as well as of tourism forms. The article reviews theoretical concepts of cultural, creative and hobby tourism as to prepare the basis for applied tourist programmes. It looks into the history of cultural tourism as to see what changes occurred and brought it to life. Changes which have taken place in everyday lives of people and the impact of everyday free time activities on tourism are also analysed. Further splintering of the cultural tourism sector is noticed and cultural tourism sub-forms are detected by analysing some of the leading home style and creativity magazines. The article also proposes possible application of push/pull factors to creative/hobby tourism.
Jusztin M., Creativity in the JoHari window: An alternative model for creating tourism programmes. pp12 – 24, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2
Alongside the recent cultural tourism trends of edutainment, active participation, learning, and the interest in the ‘unique’; the desire of tourists to get involved in the creative process has been steadily gaining popularity. The final aim of this desire for involvement is not necessarily the creation of an artwork, but rather the process of experiencing. This is where creativity and creative activities play an important role, even in tourism. This paper examines the forms and perspectives of participation and creativity in tourism supply by developing an alternative JoHari model; exploring creative tourism from the perspective of co-creation between tourists and hosts. The model developed is based on the so-called JoHari window, a socio-psychological tool used to describe human interactions. The model shows the degrees and possibilities of creativity provided for tourists, which might help to make an element of tourism supply more refined and attractive. The model provides opportunities for exposing tourists to a varied range of positive impulses within a single programme. A literature is supported by primary research conducted with a focus group to examine recent demand trends in festivals and museums. The model is intended to serve suppliers, showing how they can better adapt to recent consumer trends and needs, and how creativity can be utilised across different cultural forms.
Kostopoulou, Stella (2013) On the Revitalized Waterfront: Creative Milieu for Creative Tourism. Sustainability 2013, 5(11), 4578-4593; doi:10.3390/su5114578
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of revitalized historic urban waterfronts as potential creative milieus attracting creative tourists. Waterfront redevelopment raises issues concerning an extensive range of urban planning and management perspectives, extending from space design to economic, environmental, cultural, and tourism considerations. The paper first reviews the ways in which the relationship between waterfronts and urban functions of port-cities has evolved over time, before turning to the examination of historic waterfronts’ redevelopment as creative milieus to host creative industries. The agglomeration of creative industries, cultural organizations and venues, and recreational facilities in urban spaces is widely recognized to generate a dynamic urban culture attracting a new wave of “creative tourists”, which do not fit to the mainstream cultural tourism behavior, and prefer to visit lively creative spaces based, not only on heritage, but also on contemporary culture. In this paper, the analysis focuses on how historic revitalized waterfronts can act as creative milieus, based on port-cities’ genius loci as cosmopolitan places of intercultural communication, offering a new alternative approach to urban cultural tourism and hopefully functioning as a spin wheel for the regeneration of the urban economy.
Leng Khoo, S. & Badarulzaman, N. (2014) Factors Determining George Town as a City of Gastronomy. DOI:10.1080/21568316.2013.874365
In line with UNESCO’s Creative Cities flagship, cities around the world are strategising to be branded as creative locations to regenerate their urban places and spaces. Under this flagship, cities are branded according to the niche activities and attractions that best exemplify their locale to the world. Innovative and creative place-brand labels have emerged such as City of Fashion, City of Literature, City of Design and, as in the present case, City of Gastronomy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors that determine and shape George Town, Penang as a creative “City of Gastronomy”. More specifically, the study explored the role of Nasi Kandar—a local George Town heritage gastronomic dish—in contributing to the city’s successful branding. A standard survey questionnaire was distributed to 412 respondents in George Town to gather the perceptions of local and foreign tourists alike towards branding and harnessing the city’s gastronomic competence. The findings from this study provide empirical evidence by ascertaining the perceived image and satisfaction levels of local and foreign tourists alike towards Nasi Kandar. The way George Town has acknowledged and leveraged Nasi Kandar as urban gastronomy can be emulated by other key cities in Malaysia (i.e. Ipoh, Bandar Melaka) or further afield.
Leue, M.C., Han, D. and Jung, T. (2014). Google Glass Creative Tourism Experience: A Case Study of Manchester Art Gallery. World Hospitality & Tourism Forum, Seoul, 26-28 June 2014
Due to the novelty factor of Google Glass, specifically in Europe, only few research attempts were made of the potential of Google Glass. The present study aims to explore visitor’s first time usage behavior of Google Glass within the cultural context. In total, 29 Art Gallery visitors tested the Google Glass prototype application “Museum Zoom” and took part in an interview. The data were analyzed using content analysis and revealed that among all age groups, the majority of visitors had a favourable opinion regarding the usage of Google Glass within Art Gallery settings. This exploratory study revealed that users were able to quickly adjust to the novel interaction and generally perceived the device to enhance the Art Gallery visitors’ experience, though the provision of additional content and easy to use as well as social networking functions. Although technological issues remained, participants were curious to interact with the device.
Long, P. and Morpeth, N. (2012) Critiquing Creativity in Tourism. In Smith, M. and Richards, G. (eds) Handbook of Cultural Tourism, London: Routledge.
A critical examination of the relationship between tourism and creativity, examining issues of definition and the practical implication of creative tourism programmes. Sheffield (UK) is analysed as a case study.
Maitland, R. (2010) Everyday life as a creative experience in cities. In International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4, 3, 176 – 185.
This paper aims to explore how overseas visitors experience off-the-beaten-track areas and everyday life in London. Initially scoped through quantitative research using visitor surveys involving some 400 respondents, the study was subsequently developed through qualitative research: 49 semi-structured interviews with visitors from a wide range of countries. The research finds that these areas offer city visitors opportunities to create their own narratives and experiences of the city, and to build a cultural capital in a convivial relationship with other city users. At the same time, visitors contribute to the discovery of new areas for tourism – and in some sense the creation of new places to visit. This indicates that subtler forms of tourism marketing are required to develop the potential of areas like these, and that some tourists and residents enjoy a convivial and complementary relationship in area development.
Marques L., Boosting potential creative tourism resources: The case of Siby(Mali), in Richards, G. and Marques, L. (2012), Exploring Creative Tourism, Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice (4) 2, pp. 111-128.
This paper further develops the conceptual framework for creative tourism, discussing the co-creation of experiences and the identification of potential resources for creative tourism development. The case of the village of Siby, in Mali, West Africa, illustrates the development of tourism and creativity in a non-western, rural environment, where creative tourism experiences can emerge spontaneously. The impacts of creative tourism are analysed and the need for more specific policies is highlighted, particularly in view of the inherent risks in creative tourism development.
Messineo E., Tourist creative processes and experiences in the European Cultural Itinerary ‘The Phoenicians’ Route’, pp41 – 54 Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2.
Cultural itineraries represent a favourable context for the development of creative processes and experiences. This paper examines the creative activities and projects of a European Cultural Itinerary, The Phoenicians’ Route. The aim was to explore the creative features related to the production and development of the cultural-tourist offer, through a survey of participants in a pilot project, and on a network of local partners that co-operate in running the itinerary. The results of this research provide a rating of the total potential of itinerary itself, contributing to its definition as a ‘creative system’.
Ngamsirijit, Wuttigrai (2014) Evanescent Cultural Communities: Developing Creative Tourism Services in Bangkok. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Social, Business, Psychological, Human Science and Engineering, 8(6), 1532-1537.
Creative tourism is an ongoing development in many countries as an attempt to move away from serial reproduction of culture and reviving the culture. Despite this, in the destinations with diverse and potential cultural resources, creating new tourism services can be vague. This paper presents how tourism experiences are modularized and consolidated in order to form new creative tourism service offerings in evanescent cultural communities of Bangkok, Thailand. The benefits from data mining in accommodating value co-creation are discussed, and implication of experience modularization to national creative tourism policy is addressed.
OECD (2014) Tourism and the Creative Economy. Paris: OECD
A study of the developing relationship between tourism and the creative economy, drawing on case studies and recent research from OECD member countries. For more details, see section 3.7.
Ohridska-Olson, Rossitza Vassileva and Ivanov, Stanislav (2010) Creative Tourism Business Model and its Application in Bulgaria. Proceedings of the Black Sea Tourism Forum ‘Cultural Tourism – The Future of Bulgaria’.
A proposed business model for creative tourism is analyzed in the framework of cultural tourism. Although creative tourism is generally perceived as a form of cultural tourism (Ohridska-Olson 2010), it is essentially different from the mainstream cultural tourism. In addition, the paper analyzes how this business model can be applied to the cultural tourism for small towns and cities in Bulgaria to fully utilize their creative and cultural heritage potential. The article also points out how creative tourism can bring sustainable and profitable development to small communities in the country.
Pappalepore, I., Maitland, R. and Smith, A. (2014). Prosuming creative urban areas. Evidence from East London. Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 44, January 2014, Pages 227–240
This research explores the role creative clusters play in the development of tourism. It involves an in-depth study of characteristics, motivations and experiences of visitors to creative urban areas using qualitative analysis of 142 interviews in creative, non-central locations in East London. The data show that the concentration of creative industries affords opportunities for consumption and for the accumulation of cultural capital, leveraging the presence of creative producers and other creative visitors, who are themselves perceived as an attraction. These factors, combined with a particular urban morphology and the presence of everyday activities, contribute to the areas’ perceived authenticity, bohemian atmosphere and cool image. The paper develops typologies of visitors to creative areas and concludes with a discussion of Bourdieu’s notion of cultural capital applied to a contemporary urban context.
Richards G. and Marques, L. (2012) Exploring Creative Tourism: Editors Introductionpp1 – 11, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2.
This paper provides an overview of the contributions to special issue of the Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice entitled „Exploring Creative Tourism‟. Creative tourism has grown rapidly in the past decade, reflecting the growing desire of consumers to develop their own creative potential and to attach themselves to creative networks, as well as the need for creative producers, cities and regions to profile themselves in an increasingly crowded global market. The case studies in the special issue examine creative tourism in a range of different contexts and present a range of models of creative tourism development in fields such as music, art, heritage and crafts. Creative tourism can therefore be viewed as a form of networked tourism, which depends on the ability of producers and consumers to relate to each other and to generate value from their encounters.
Richards, G. (2010), Increasing the attractiveness of places through cultural resources, Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 10.
Culture and tourism have a symbiotic relationship that has the potential to make places more attractive and competitive. This review of the OECD report on The Impact of Culture on Tourismanalyzes the ways in which culture and tourism can act as drivers of attractiveness, paying particular attention to the role of potential policy interventions to strengthen this process, including the development of partnerships, funding issues, product development, and marketing. A number of key future issues are identified, and evolving debates in the relationship between culture and tourism are outlined.
Richards, G. (2011) Cultural tourism trends in Europe: a context for the development of Cultural Routes. In: Khovanova-Rubicondo, K. (ed.) Impact of European Cultural Routes on SMEs’ innovation and competitiveness. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing, pp. 21-39.
This paper examines macro trends in tourism, particularly in relationship to European Cultural Routes. It covers the major drivers of tourism, the development of cultural tourism and the current cultural tourism market. In the field of creative tourism the emphasis shifts from tangible to intangible culture, and the basic experience consists of an exchange of knowledge and skills between host and guest. This produces a more locally-driven, equitable and arguably more ‘authentic’ form of cultural tourism. The development of creative tourism is evident in rural areas (where creativity is needed to combat a lack of economic alternatives) and in cities, which are viewed as the engines of the creative economy. Rural creative tourism is being developed in many rural areas of the UK, Scandinavia and France. In major cities such as Barcelona, Paris and Rome, creative tourism is now being developed as an alternative to ‘mass’ cultural tourism (www.creativetourismnetwork.org).
Cultural routes can play an important role in anchoring narrative in the cultural spaces through which they travel, providing:
- Raw materials for narrative
- Linkage between narrative and place
- Creative spaces for narrative development and intercultural dialogue
Richards, G. (2010) Tourism development trajectories: From culture to creativity?Tourism and Management Studies 6, 9-15.
This paper traces the development of creative tourism as new form of cultural tourism. This trend has been stimulated by the growth of new consumption patterns, by more involved and skilled forms of tourism activity, and by changes in the production of tourism, such as the development of the experience economy. Arguably creative tourism also provides some answers to the increasing problems experienced in cultural tourism development, which is rapidly becoming another form of mass tourism. The paper outlines the different forms that creative tourism can take, ranging from interactive workshops and learning experiences to creative backdrops for tourism activity. Illustrations of creative tourism forms are taken from creative tourism networks, workshops, creative spaces, cultural itineraries and creative events.
Richards, G. and Wilson, J. (2007) Tourism, creativity and development. London: Routledge.
Richards, G. (2012) An introduction to creative tourism: The effects of human exchange: being together, an anthropological constant. Paper presented at the Creative Tourism Conference in Paris, December 7th 2012.
This presentation examines how creative tourism enriches exchanges among people. In the contemporary network society, organising social encounters becomes a major challenge. Although we are constantly in touch via email and smartphones, time pressured agendas make personal contact more difficult. Therefore such contact has become more valuable and important, and travel becomes an important mechanism for facilitating such contact. Creative tourism is a response to the need for social and cultural exchange. It focusses on creativity as a means of exchanging the embedded knowledge that both residents and tourist carry with them, enriching the lives of all. Destinations that develop creative tourism are effectively facilitating such exchanges and helping to build a new sociality for the network age.
Richards, G. (2013) Creative and relational tourism in Barcelona. Paper presented at the ATLAS Cultural Tourism Group Expert Meeting on Alternative and CreativeTourism, Barcelona, June 2013.
Barcelona presents an ideal-typical case of the development of creative tourism. The city has become a leading player in creative tourism development for a number of reasons, including:
- the current model of mass tourism development has begun to falter, stimulating a search for alternative models that articulate with everyday life and local creativity
- the relatively closed nature of the cultural sector in the city has positioned creative tourism as a potential avenue for networking and knowledge exchange
- frequent repeat visits have stimulated tourists to seek out new areas of the city and new ways of experiencing the city. This has also been a source of contact between locals and tourists, which has been an important factor in introducing local creativity to visitors.
This paper analyses the development of cultural and creative tourism in Barcelona, particularly emphasising the crisis caused by the success of the original cultural tourism model. The emergence of creative tourism is analysed as a movement stimulated by, and positioned in opposition to, the traditional tourism model and established tourism regime.
Richards, G. (2013) Tourism development trajectories- From culture to creativity? In Smith, M. and Richards, G. (eds) The Handbook of Cultural Tourism. London: Routledge, pp. 297-303.
This chapter traces the development of creative tourism as new form of cultural tourism. This trend has been stimulated by the growth of new consumption patterns, by more involved and skilled forms of tourism activity, and by changes in the production of tourism, such as the development of the experience economy. Arguably creative tourism also provides some answers to the increasing problems experienced in cultural tourism development, which is rapidly becoming another form of mass tourism. The chapter outlines the different forms that creative tourism can take, ranging from interactive workshops and learning experiences to creative backdrops for tourism activity. Illustrations of creative tourism forms are taken from creative tourism networks, workshops, creative spaces, cultural itineraries and creative events.
Richards, G. (2014) Creating relational tourism through exchange: The Maltese experience. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 12 (1), 87-94.
Tourism, like many other cultural and social phenomena, is based on exchange. It is perhaps not surprising that Malta, long a centre for trade and social exchange, has become a focus for the social exchanges promoted by tourism and other forms of long-term mobility. Exchange is also a major theme for the European Capital of Culture in Valletta in 2018. This paper looks at the ways in which the concept of exchange has changed in a globalising world, particularly as it problematizes traditional concepts of ‘host’ and ‘guest’. In particular, attention is paid to how the concept of ‘local’ culture is replacing ‘authenticity’ as the touchstone of real tourism experience. What does it mean to be local, or to ‘live like a local’ in Malta, or anywhere else?
Richards, G. and Russo, A.P. (2014, eds) Alternative and creative tourism. Arnhem: ATLAS.
This ATLAS publication stems from a joint meeting held by the Association’s Cultural Tourism Research Group and the City and National Capital Tourism Research Group in Barcelona in 2013. Both of these groups have an active research interest in the development of tourism in cities, and in particular the way in which culture, creativity and tourism interlink.
Saiphan, P. and Sangsnit, N. (2013) Innovation of Cultural Creativity in the process of Creative Tourism in Thailand. DASTA, Thailand.
Attention on creative tourism in the global process with anthropological views of cultural creativity, we have seen and been concerned with the ‘local thought’ in specific areas and communities that show diversity of innovations of cultural creativity, in the process of creativity tourism in Thailand.
The paper will provide the represent cultures in the process of creative tourism, using cultural material from field-study, which uniquely experience tourists from three tourism places in Loei and Sukhothai province. The cases contribute how local people create nature to dimensions of variety cultures that supply for the sustainability in tourism.
The “cotton blanket” handmade in ChiangKhan, Loei, is local unique cultural product that people present their local wisdom of using local natural material, cotton, to create local handmade style of cotton blanket used in their living since long time ago. Tourists and travelers can be now experience the process of making the blanket not only to get the product but the understanding in the spirit of people and place of Chiangkhan.
Natural material as bee’s wax has been used by the people of Dansai, Loei. They create “wax flower tree” donated for the sacred of local spirits and Buddhism stupa. The community of Dansai has a unique network of sacred leaders, shaman, who manipulate the process of the ritual of wax flower tree ritual and festival which are now in everyday life of local people and they do welcome travelers to pay the respect on the tradition with the process of experiencing wax flower tree individual rite of donation.
In the case of the ceramic community in the old quarter of Sukhothai historical park, people create their tourism product and place with the story composed of nature, culture and nation. The unique celadon of Sukhothai ceramic is originated from the earth, where the place located is significant to the origin city of Thai history. This also point out that there is a negotiation between local cultural identity and national identity throughout the historical relationship between the local area and the state.
It could be clearly seen that the ‘local thought’ of cultural creativity could play a very significant role to compose their tourism identities of each locale giving the reconstruction an understanding of their spirit of place, related to local history and local culture. It comes up with the innovation of cultural creativity in the process of creative tourism by the local people who try to conduct the tourism programme to teach tourists by practicing, meanwhile tourists learning with experiencing their cultures. Local thought and people in the community are the fundamentally important factor of creative tourism which will leads to sustainable tourism we concern.
Saiphan, P., Teparakul, O., Sangsnit, N. and Pathomwaree, S. (2014) Innovation in Sustainable and Responsible Tourism Practices through Creative Tourism in Thailand. Paper presented at Tourtravel ’14 conference, Istanbul, Turkey, April 2014.
In response to a global ongoing trend in sustainable and responsible tourism, Thailand is seeking out the best tourism practices through the innovation of “Creative Tourism Thailand” project, launched by the Designated Areas for Sustainable Tourism Administration (Public Organization) or DASTA. Creative Tourism is seen as a powerful tool in creating sustainable and responsible community tourism. The concept has underlined the idea that tourists can gain authentic experiences through participation in various activities provided by the local communities they visit, in order to feel connected to the history, culture and way of life. Conceptualizing this idea, researchers have conducted the research which included several site visits and travel demonstration to find out the model of creative tourism activities in Thailand. Successful model can be seen as the bright future in tourism and hospitality in Asia and worldwide.
This paper will present creative tourism activities and highlight uniqueness of each tourist place using materials from field studies. Case studies demonstrate how local people create tourist activities from natural and cultural heritage available in the community resulting in the sustainability of the community itself.
Examples of creative tourism activities in Thailand from 6 Designated Areas (in 7 provinces) include Koh Chang Islands and related areas, Pattaya City and related areas, Sukhothai – Si Satchanalai – Kamphaeng Phet Historical Parks, Loei province, Nan old city, and U-Thong ancient city. Each area is differently characterized by its nature, history, local culture, local art and people’s way of life. One of them, remarkably, Sukhothai was said to be the first national capital of Thailand and was designated by UNESCO a World Heritage Site.
Creative tourism is seen and proposed as a means to promote sustainable tourism. Our research also points out that sustainable tourism is actually generated from local people and communities. Whenever people realize and appreciate their local history and culture, they will be proudly willing to share new and unique experiences to tourists. This can be seen in such creative tourism activities as fishing with local fishermen in Pattaya, spirit mask making in Loei, textile weaving in Nan and celadon ceramic making in Sukhothai. These examples show innovation originated from local communities trying to design the suitable program for visitors to feel the spirit of place. We also found that the process to sustainability needs cooperation from both tourists and local communities. This paper concludes that the very fundamentally important factor of sustainable tourism can be practiced through the innovation of creative tourism activities.
Sindecharak, T. and Sangsnit, N. (2013) Creative Tourism: Perception of Tourists, the Availability of Ownership and Possibility of Creative Tourism in Thailand. DASTA, Thailand.
This article aims to present a survey of the tourist’s perceptions, the ownership’s availability and the possibility of creative tourism in Thailand. Creative tourism has become a new tourism interest and with support from both the public and private sectors in an effort to make it happen in Thailand like in other countries, under the initiative and drive of Designated Areas for Sustainable Tourism Administration (Public Organization) or “DASTA”
The study will not only explore the relevant literature and policies of government, as well as the support of the private sector for creative tourism in Thailand, but also it will include a quantitative survey of 300 the visitors who joined the activities. In addition, this study will be supported by in-depth interviews with the owners of the creative tourism offers. The selected creative tourism activities are the celadon at Suthep shop in Muang Koa district, Sukhothai province. This is in accordance with the rules of the so-called creative tourism activities. The primary interest of this study found that there are few tourists who actually understand creative tourism. The results show that there are gaps among the perception of tourists, the preparedness of owners of creative tourism offers, and also support from both the public and private sectors to make creative tourism actually happen in Thailand.
Stipanović, C., & Elena, R. (2014). Development Concept and Strategy for Creative Tourism of the Kvarner Destination. Tourism & Hospitality Industry 2014 Trends in Tourism and Hospitality Management.
This paper explores the current condition and the possible development perspectives of creative tourism in the tourist destination of Kvarner. The research starts with a broadened conceptual definition of creative tourism which denotes meeting the tourists’ needs within the development of a creative potential in the acquisition of knowledge and new experiences relating to the holiday destination. Based on the research of new creative tourism trends and the analysis of the current state of creative and cultural offer in the Kvarner destination, the paper aims to set the goals and define the means to innovate the operational strategies in order to reposition Kvarner as a creative tourism destination. The research is based on an analysis of the current situation (surveys, focus groups, confronting attitudes of stakeholders) and the perception of the future, as well as the author’s situational analysis and development scenario analysis. The subject has been insufficiently explored and represents a development of the Kvarner cultural tourism development concept and strategy. The main limitation of the research lies in the small sample of the surveyed management attitudes, due to a lack of creative tourism awareness, which in turn results in the lack of Kvarner creative tourism strategies and management. With the development of creative tourism, the Kvarner destination can become recognizable as a destination providing a new, differentiated offer on the market, based on authenticity and creativity all in accordance with the specific needs of contemporary tourists and new tourism market trends. The research both raises new questions and offers qualitative solutions with the goal of qualitative transformation of Kvarner tourism through a continuous improvement of all segments of creative tourism. It further raises the question of synergy of different micro- destinations’ offer in branding Kvarner as a destination of creative tourism. The originality of the work stems from theoretical determinants, the authors’ attitudes, and the results of tourists and management research.
Tan, SK (2013) A Model Of ‘Creative Experience’ In Creative Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 41, 153–174
This study explores the essence of ‘creativity’ in ‘creative tourism’ from a tourist perspective. Creative tourism is receiving an increasing amount of attention, although the concept remains rather vague, and more research is needed. Data was collected using in-depth interviews with tourists and observations at four ‘Creative Life Industry’ sites in Taiwan. Grounded theory approach was employed, and the findings show that ‘outer interactions’ and ‘inner reflections’ construct the model of tourists’ creative experience. The former refer to tourists’ interactions with ‘environment’, ‘people’, and ‘product/service/experience’, while the latter refer to ‘consciousness/awareness’, ‘needs’ and ‘creativity’, and these dimensions ‘interact’ in tourists’ inner-self throughout the experience. Moreover, ‘consciousness/awareness’ is a prerequisite for ‘creative experience’, differentiating it from other types of experiences.
Tan, SK Luh, DB and Kung, SF (2014) A taxonomy of creative tourists in creative tourism. Tourism Management, 42, June 2014, 248–259.
This study aims to characterise creative tourists and their perceptions of creative experiences at tourism sites. Creative tourists are active co-creators of their experiences; hence, they should be treated as a heterogeneous group of co-producers who have subjective opinions and feelings toward their creative experiences. The existing literature suggests that a creative experience is constructed by ‘inner reflections’, which include not only ‘consciousness/awareness’, ‘needs/motivations’ and ‘creativity’, but also ‘outer interactions’ which refer to ‘environment’, ‘people’ and ‘activity’ (Tan, Kung, & Luh, 2013). However, how a particular mix of factors interact and define an individual’s perceptions of a creative experience may vary among different types of creative tourists. The methodology was used to reveal the tourists’ inherent subjectivity of creative experiences with regard to the constructions of personal meaning. Five distinct groups of creative tourists were identified: novelty-seekers, knowledge and skills learners, those who are aware of their travel partners’ growth, those who are aware of green issues, and the relax and leisure type. Each consists of a different composition of factors which can provide new insights into how different creative tourists construct their personal creative experiences at these sites.
Teparakul, O. and Sangsnit, N. (2013) Creating and Maintaining Sustainable Rural Community through Creative Tourism: Experience from Thailand
Over the past 30 years, tourism is considered increasingly by the government and its proponents as an important source of income and employment for many developing countries, including Thailand. At the same time, several studies, reveal negative social, cultural and environmental impacts of tourism on the local communities. Apart from debates on tourism, an emerging alternative form of tourism so-called “Creative Tourism” was recently introduced in Thailand by the Designated Areas for Sustainable Tourism Administration (Public Organization) or DASTA. Since it emphasizes on authenticity of the community, value creation of everyday culture such as lifestyle, local wisdom, art and history, creative tourism offers tourists interactive experiences with the local hosts and opportunity to learn new skills through various activities such as workshops. Consequently, this creates cross-cultural experience and deep understanding of the communities. In terms of the supply side, creative tourism also benefits the local communities as it helps preserving culture and creates awareness among local people. This paper explores creative tourism concept and examines how Thailand adopts this concept compared to the Western world. Sukhothai province, one of the designated areas for implementing creative tourism model in Thailand, is selected as a case study. The paper suggests that, appropriately managed, creative tourism can be an important mechanism in creating and maintaining sustainable rural communities in Thailand.
Thimm, T. (2014). The Flamenco Factor in Destination Marketing: Interdependencies of Creative Industries and Tourism—the Case of Seville. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 31(5), 576-588.
This study builds on the concepts developed by Florida in his work “The Rise of the Creative Class”. In doing so it seeks evidence for the claims made that the creative arts address deficiencies identified in the terminology of ‘cultural tourism’. The case relates to flamenco performances in Seville. The art complex of flamenco survived on the one hand as a symbol of Andalusian culture. On the other hand it depends strongly on the international tourism market. Additionally, flamenco is used in destination marketing to differentiate Seville from other Spanish cities.
UNESCO Creative Cities Network (2006) Towards Sustainable Strategies for Creative Tourism: Discussion Report of the Planning Meeting for 2008 International Conference on Creative Tourism Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A. October 25-27, 2006.
Discussion of the development and definition of creative tourism in the run-up to the first global creative tourism conference in Santa Fe.
Wattanacharoensila, Walanchalee & Schuckert, Markus (2014) Reviewing Thailand’s master plans and policies: implications for creative tourism? Current Issues in Tourism.
This article contributes to an understanding of how creative tourism is perceived on a national level, by using Thailand as a case analysis. The primary objective of this article is to investigate Thailand’s plans and policies for the creative economy at both national and ministry levels in relation to creative tourism. It also identifies how a national strategic plan can provide a blueprint for individual agency master plans to provide policy support for the development of the creative economy in the tourism sector. Thailand is chosen as an example of how government and related agencies can contribute to a national creative tourism movement in the country, especially in the light of the Tourism Authority of Thailand branding campaign to stimulate creative tourism to the destination. The qualitative research methodology through content analysis is used to scrutinise the plan and policy contents from the selected government agencies. The results demonstrate a better view of how creative tourism is positioned in the Thailand context and contributes to a policy study on the creative economy in the tourism sector as well as in creative tourism.
Whiting, J. and Hannam, K. (2014). Journeys of inspiration: Working artists’ reflections on tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 49, 65-75.
While much recent research has been focused on aspects of creative tourism, relatively little has paid attention to the views of creative residents. In this paper we argue that romantically informed modes of travel are important to working artists. The findings, generated through qualitative research, suggest that many working artists adopt anti-tourist perspectives informed by romanticism and based upon temporal, spatial and behavioural touristic distinctions. The desire to ‘not be a tourist’, however, becomes challenged by a desire for an integrated and inspirational engagement with the elsewhere developed from their educational experiences. This is demonstrated as a core aspect of the identities of working artists as creative residents in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.
Wisudthiluck, S. and Sangsnit, N. (2013) Buddhist Votive Tablets as Cultural Heritage in Tourism: a Challenge and Opportunity in Creative Tourism of Thailand. DASTA, Thailand.
Cultural tourism, particularly creative tourism, has grown rapidly. It has been considered as an important tool to share knowledge and to dialogue between different cultures. Richards and Raymond (2000) have defined that “tourism which offers visitors the opportunities to develop their creative potential through active participation in courses and learning experiences which are characteristic of the holiday destination where they are undertaken.”
Creative tourism is a new direction which conforms to the new generation of tourists as they are looking for new experiences. Their interests have shifted from tangible heritage to intangible cultural heritage. They desire participations in activities involving art and craft works of the local community in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the cultural characteristics of the place and people they have visited.
The paper has examined the meaning of Buddha images in the form of terracotta votive tablet in the context of tourism in Nakornchum district, Kamphang Phet province. Nationally, Nakornchum is well known for their particular models of ancient votive tablets. Apparently, these tablet models have been involved in creative tourism. This can be seen as a challenge of which the value of votive tablets has shifted from cultural heritage to souvenir. This paper has explored the meaning of ‘sacred’ and ‘profane’ of the cultural heritage in the context of creative tourism as to how the community has adapted to the current socio-cultural situation.
Zegers K., COLIN’s creative tourism experiences: The opportunities for the province of Noord-Brabant, The Netherlands. pp 139 – 141, Journal of Tourism Consumption and practice, Special Issue on Creative Tourism, Volume 4 Number 2
A case study of creative tourism development in the Netherlands.
ZENG Qi jie, LV Li, LU Lin, ZHU Fu biao. An Analysis on the Demand for Cultural Creative Tourism and Its Differences [WT][/WT]——Taking Shanghai World Expo as An Example. TOURISM TRIBUNE, 2012, 27(5): 103-108.
Mass demand for cultural and spiritual consumption has provided broad market prospect for the development of cultural creative industries. Currently, the tourism industry is confronting with the upgrade of cultural taste and transition of the development model. The World Expo is a product highly agglomerated with cultural creative tourism industries in a peculiar space. The paper, based on the questionnaire survey from tourists, makes an analysis of the demand for cultural creative tourism and its differences from the two aspects of core content and derivative products. The results show that the demand for tourists’ cultural creative tourism presents the trend of diversity, entertainment, symmetry, practicability as well as virtual experiences. In terms of the demand for core content, tourists’ demand ranges from exhibition halls, cultural art activities to forums and in terms of the demand for derivative products, tourists have higher demand for some franchise tourism souvenirs such as Expo passport, Haibao and Expo commemorative badges and higher demand for publishing and issuing service is the map. Demand for network cultural service is being gradually improved. The analysis finds that there exist significant differences in tourists’ demand for cultural creative tourism based on different demographic features and tourism behaviour characteristics, which is mainly embodied in the influences of ages and monthly income, while gender, occupation, educational background, entering times and ways of travel have less influences. Hence the development orientation for future cultural creative tourism is discussed.
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